: An array is a data structure that stores a collection of elements in a contiguous block of memory. Arrays are one of the most basic and commonly used data structures in JavaScript.

A string is a data structure that stores a sequence of characters. Strings are another commonly used data structure in JavaScript, and they are used to represent text, URLs, and other types of data.

A linked list is a data structure that stores a collection of elements in a non-contiguous block of memory. Linked lists are more flexible than arrays, but they can be slower for some operations.

A stack is a data structure that follows the last-in-first-out (LIFO) principle. Stacks are commonly used to implement function calls and undo/redo functionality.

A queue is a data structure that follows the first-in-first-out (FIFO) principle. Queues are commonly used to implement job queues and message queues.

A tree is a data structure that organizes data in a hierarchical manner. Trees are commonly used to implement search algorithms and database indexes.

A graph is a data structure that represents a collection of nodes and the edges that connect them. Graphs are commonly used to represent social networks, road networks, and other types of data.

A set is a data structure that stores a collection of unique elements. Sets are commonly used to implement deduplication and to check if an element exists in a collection.

A map is a data structure that stores a collection of key-value pairs. Maps are commonly used to implement hash tables and to store configuration data.

A binary search tree is a type of tree that organizes data in a sorted order. BSTs are commonly used to implement efficient search and insertion algorithms.

An AVL tree is a type of self-balancing binary search tree. AVL trees are more complex than BSTs, but they offer better performance for some operations.

A red-black tree is another type of self-balancing binary search tree. Red-black trees are similar to AVL trees, but they are slightly faster for some operations.

A binary heap is a type of tree that organizes data in a priority queue. Binary heaps are commonly used to implement efficient sorting algorithms.

A trie is a tree-like data structure that is used to store and search for strings. Tries are very efficient for string search operations

A Bloom filter is a probabilistic data structure that is used to check if an element exists in a set. Bloom filters are very efficient for checking if an element exists in a large set, but they are not guaranteed to be accurate.